beech wood uses

Recent classifications recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera, Engleriana and Fagus. …expanded, moisture-loving trees such as beech and hemlock expanded their ranges westward, and populations of boreal trees, such as spruce and tamarack, increased and expanded southward. For other uses, see, Robert Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden and Boston 2010, pp. They work as excellent firewood, to smoke various foods and alcohols, and as a construction material for everything from tables to cabins. In modern Dutch, the word for "book" is boek, with beuk meaning "beech tree". Fagus sylvatica is one of the most common hardwood trees in north central Europe, in France alone constituting about 15% of all nonconifers. East Asia is home to five species of Fagus, only one of which (F. crenata) is occasionally planted in Western countries. [9] Infection can lead to the death of the tree. Beech is also used to smoke Westphalian ham, various sausages, and some cheeses. The narrow, coarsely saw-toothed, heavily veined, blue-green leaves of the American beech are about 13 cm (5 inches) long and turn yellow in autumn. It grows naturally in Denmark and southern Norway and Sweden up to about 57–59°N. Some suggest that it was introduced by Neolithic tribes who planted the trees for their edible nuts. Numerous varieties of the European beech are cultivated as ornamental and shade trees, such as the copper, or purple, beech, with copper-coloured foliage; the Dawyck beech, a narrow, spirelike, glossy-leaved tree; the fernleaf, or cut-leaved, beech, with narrow, deeply lobed, fernlike leaves; the oak-leaved beech, with deeply toothed, wavy-margined, oaklike leaves; and the weeping beech, with long pendulous branches and wide-spreading horizontal limbs. These patterns all indicate a trend of increased effective moisture, which may indicate increased precipitation, decreased evapotranspiration due to cooling, or both. [10], Beech leaf disease is a disease spread by the newly discovered nematode, Litylenchus crenatae mccannii. 1565–6, Denk, Thomas with Guido Grimm and Vera Hemleben. Because beech steam-bends as readily as ash, it works well for chair legs and backs. However, beech trees also deliver in terms of medicinal or health benefits. The female flowers, usually in pairs on short hairy stems on the same tree, develop into prickly burs enclosing one or two three-sided sweet-flavoured nuts. A Monograph of the Genus. The small flowers are unisexual, the female flowers borne in pairs, the male flowers wind-pollinating catkins. The pyramidal nuts and prickly involucres of a beech tree (. The fruit is a small, sharply three-angled nut 10–15 mm (3⁄8–5⁄8 in) long, borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks 1.5–2.5 cm (5⁄8–1 in) long, known as cupules. early agricultural practices. The toothed parallel-veined leaves are shiny green and are borne alternately along the stem. 17 September 2012. beech bark disease." The small flowers are unisexual, the female flowers borne in pairs, the male flowers wind-pollinating catkins. [3] The classification of the European beech, Fagus sylvatica is complex, with a variety of different names proposed for different species and subspecies within this region (for example Fagus taurica, Fagus orientalis, and Fagus moesica[4]). Sometimes it is not the simplest wood for craftsmen, but if you know how to use it, it is usually worth the effort and time it takes. In Denmark and Scania at the southernmost peak of the Scandinavian peninsula, south-west of the natural spruce boundary, it is the most common forest tree. Preston, Pearman & Dines (2002) New Atlas of the British Flora. The timber can be used to build chalets, houses, and log cabins. 1997. They are found in Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Argentina, and Chile (principally Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego). Beech logs are burned to dry the malt used in some German smoked beers, giving the beers their typical flavor. Corrections? Denk, Thomas with Guido Grimm, K. Stogerer, M. Langer, Vera Hemleben 2002. The beech wood uses and properties. Fresh from the tree, beech leaves in spring are a fine salad vegetable, as sweet as a mild cabbage, though much softer in texture. The fruit of the beech tree, known as beechnuts or mast, is found in small burrs that drop from the tree in autumn. Credo Reference. It is also used for making lumber and cabinets. The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is the most commonly cultivated. The timber can be used to build chalets, houses, and log cabins. [6] The southern beeches (genus Nothofagus) previously thought closely related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, the Nothofagaceae (which remains a member of the order Fagales). The wavy-leaved Antarctic beech, or nire (Nothofagus antarctica), and the roble beech (N. obliqua), both 30-metre (98-foot) trees native to Chile and Argentina, differ from other species of false beech in being deciduous; they are planted as ornamentals on other continents. Iliad 16.767) as a result of the absence of beech trees in Greece.[1]. Other areas which have a long history of cultivation, Bulgaria for example, do not exhibit this pattern, so how much human activity has influenced the spread of beech trees is as yet unclear.[15]. The beech most commonly grown as an ornamental tree is the European beech (Fagus sylvatica), widely cultivated in North America and its native Europe. Smaller than F. sylvatica and F. grandifolia, Japanese beech is one of the most common hardwoods in its native range. 1992. The thin bark is smooth and steel-gray in colour. Beech wood also makes excellent firewood, easily split and burning for many hours with bright but calm flames. Since the beech tree has such delicate bark, carvings, such as lovers' initials and other forms of graffiti, remain because the tree is unable to heal itself. Beech logs are burned to dry the malt used in some German smoked beers, giving the beers their typical flavor. The Mexican beech, or haya (F. mexicana), a timber tree often 40 metres (130 feet) tall, has wedge-shaped leaves. The evolutionary history of. Among the best known are the Australian beech (N. moorei), a 46-metre (151-foot) tree with leaves 7 cm (3 inches) long, found in New South Wales; the myrtle beech, Tasmanian myrtle, or Australian, or red, myrtle (N. cunninghamii), a 60-metre (197-foot) Tasmanian tree important for its fine-textured wood; the slender, columnar red beech (N. fusca) of New Zealand, about 30 metres tall; and the silver, or southland, beech (N. menziesii), a 30-metre New Zealand tree with doubly and bluntly toothed leaves bearing small hairy pits beneath. Beech logs are burned to dry the malt used in some German smoked beers, givin… Propagation is usually by seed; the shallow spreading root system often sends up suckers that may grow into thickets. 2005. The Roman natural philosopher wrote: "(...) there are considerable modifications in the flavour of their fruit. [3] The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark. Fagus japonica, Fagus engleriana, and the species F. okamotoi, proposed by the botanist Chung-Fu Shen in 1992, comprise this subgenus. [22] The young leaves can be steeped in gin for several weeks, the liquor strained off and sweetened to give a light green/yellow liqueur called beech leaf noyau. It weighs about 720 kg per cubic metre and is widely used for furniture framing and carcase construction, flooring and engineering purposes, in plywood and in household items like plates, but rarely as a decorative wood. Research has linked the establishment of beech stands in Scandinavia and Germany with cultivation and fire disturbance, i.e. The Cwm Clydach National Nature Reserve in southeast Wales was designated for its beech woodlands, which are believed to be on the western edge of their natural range in this steep limestone gorge.[13]. The European species Fagus sylvatica yields a utility timber that is tough but dimensionally unstable. About 40 species of superficially similar trees, known as false beech or southern beech (Nothofagus; family Nothofagaceae), are native to cooler regions of the Southern Hemisphere. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark. This provides a complex surface on which the yeast can settle, so that it does not pile up, preventing yeast autolysis which would contribute off-flavors to the beer.

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